Alkulämmittely ja jäähdyttely


tarkoituksena on herättää keho itse toimintaan eli valmistaa lihakset ja nivelet tulevaan koitokseen. Lähdetään liikkeelle vähitellen ja isoja lihasryhmiä lämmittäen, jolloin syke nousee tasaisesti. Hyvä muistaa, että alkuverryttelyn  tarkoituksena on saada hiki pintaan. Venytysten kesto valitaan tarkoituksen mukaan eli liikkuvuus riittäväksi kyseiseen harjoitukseen tai kilpailuun.


tarkoituksen on palauttaa lihakset rentoon ns. ”normaalitilaan” ja normaaliin lihaspituuteen, edistää palautumista harjoituksesta tai kilpailusta ja nopeuttaa  maitohapon poistumista. Sykkeen olisi oltava 120 – 130 x min, 10 –15 min ajan, jotta sydänlihas käyttää maitohappoa energianaan. 
Lapsilla ja nuorilla kisailut, viestit ja erilaiset leikit ovat erittäin hyviä ja mielialaa nostavia harjoitteita loppuverryttelyssä.
Venytysten toteuttaminen loppuverryttelyssä valittava tarkoituksen ja harjoittelun kuormittamisen mukaan eri lihasryhmille.

A warm-up 

generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity (a "pulse raiser"), joint mobility exercise, and stretching, followed by the activity. Warming up brings the body to a condition at which it safely responds to nerve signals for quick and efficient action.

For example, before running or playing an intense sport, the athlete might slowly jog to warm their muscles and increase their heart rate. It is important that warm ups be specific to the activity, so that the muscles to be used are activated. The risks and benefits of combining stretching with warming up are disputed, although it is generally believed that warming up prepares the athlete both mentally and physically. Warm-up programs can improve the strength of the knee muscle, which, in turn, may decrease injuries.

Cooling down, also called warming down, is an easy exercise that will allow the body to gradually transition from an exertional state to a resting or near-resting state. Depending on the intensity of the exercise, cooling down can involve a slow jog or walk, or with lower intensities, stretching can be used. Cooling down allows the heart rate to return to its resting rate. Contrary to popular belief, cool down does not reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle soreness is not caused by lactate production during intense exercise. There is no strong evidence that cooling down is necessary, although anecdotally cooling down may reduce dizziness for professional or serious athletes after strenuous workouts.

A warm-up generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity (a "pulse raiser"), joint mobility exercise, and stretching, followed by the activity. Warming up brings the body to a condition at which it safely responds to nerve signals for quick and efficient action.


is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time. Performed over long distances, it is a form of aerobic endurance training.

The definition of jogging as compared with running is not standard. One definition describes jogging as running slower than 6 miles per hour (10 km/h). Jogging is also distinguished from running by having a wider lateral spacing of foot strikes, creating side-to-side movement that likely adds stability at slower speeds or when coordination is lacking.

Jogging may also be used as a warm up or cool down for runners, preceding or following a workout or race. It is often used by serious runners as a means of active recovery during interval training.

Jogging can be used as a method to increase endurance or to provide a means of cardiovascular exercise but with less stress on joints or demand on the circulatory system.

According to a study by Stanford University School of Medicine, jogging is effective in increasing human lifespan, and decreasing the effects of aging, with benefits for the cardiovascular system. Jogging is useful for fighting obesity and staying healthy. The National Cancer Institute has performed studies that suggest jogging and other types of aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of lung, colon, breast and prostate cancers, among others. It is suggested by the American Cancer Society that jogging for at least 30 minutes five days a week can help in cancer prevention.

While jogging on a treadmill will provide health benefits such as cancer prevention, and aid in weight loss, a study published in BMC Public Health reports that jogging outdoors can have the additional benefits of increased energy and concentration. Jogging outdoors is a better way to improve energy levels and advance mood than using a treadmill at the gym.

Jogging also prevents muscle and bone damage that often occurs with age, improves heart performance and blood circulation and assists in preserving a balanced weight gain.

A Danish study released in 2015 reported that "light" and "moderate" jogging were associated with reduced mortality compared to both non-jogging and "strenuous" jogging. The optimal amount per week was 1 to 2.4 hours, the optimal frequency was 2-3 times per week, and the optimal speed was "slow" or "average".

Note Usually before the class starts, the master instructs the students to jog around the dojang to warmup. Depending on the size of the dojang, several laps are done.

Power walking or speed walking

is the act of walking with a speed at the upper end of the natural range for walking gait, typically 7 to 9 km/h (4.5 to 5.5 mph). To qualify as power walking as opposed to jogging or running, at least one foot must be in contact with the ground at all times.

Power walking has been recommended as an alternative to jogging for a low-to-moderate exercise regime, for instance 60–80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax). At the upper range walking and jogging are almost equally efficient, and the walking gait gives significantly less impact to the joints. When used in this way, an exaggerated arm swing is often used.

Power walking/speed walking is often confused with racewalking, which has rules to define what counts as walking fast and is also a popular Olympic level event.

In strength training, the squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quads (vastus lateralus medialis and intermedius), hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs and buttocks, as well as developing core strength. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form.


The movement begins from a standing position. The movement is initiated by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the torso, then returning to the upright position.

As the body gradually descends, the hips and knees undergo flexion, the ankle dorsiflexes and muscles around the joint contract eccentrically, reaching maximal contraction at the bottom of the movement while slowing and reversing descent. The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in then tension is taken from the hamstrings, hindering power on the ascent. Returning to vertical contracts the muscles concentrically, and the hips and knees undergo extension while the ankle plantarflexes. In a weight bearing squat, the heels should always maintain contact with the floor throughout the movement. Weight shifting forward on to the toes, and off the heels creates unnecessary stress on the knee joint. This added stress may lead to inflammation or other overuse injuries.

Plyometric / Bodyweight

  • Bodyweight squat – done with no weight or barbell, often at higher repetitions than other variants.
  • Overhead squat – a non-weight bearing variation of the squat exercise, with the hands facing each other overhead, biceps aligned with the ears, and feet hip-width apart. This exercise is a predictor of total-body flexibility, mobility, and possible lower body dysfunction.
  • Face the wall squat – performed with or without weights. It is primarily to strengthen the vertebrae tissues. In the Chinese variant (面壁蹲墙) weights are not used. Toes, knees and nose line up almost touching the wall. Advanced forms include shoeless, wrists crossed behind the back, and fists in front of forehead, all performed with toes and knees closed and touching the wall.
  • Hindu squat – done without weight where the heels are raised and body weight is placed on the toes; the knees track far past the toes.
  • Jump squat – a plyometrics exercise where the squatter engages in a rapid eccentric contraction and jumps forcefully off the floor at the top of the range of motion.
  • Pistol or pistol squat – a bodyweight squat done on one leg to full depth, while the other leg is extended off the floor. Sometimes dumbbells, kettlebells or medicine balls are added for resistance. (aka single leg squat).

Injury Considerations

Although the squat has long been a basic element of weight training, it has in recent years been the subject of considerable controversy. Some trainers allege that squats are associated with injuries to the lumbar spine and knees. Others, however, continue to advocate the squat as one of the best exercises for building muscle and strength. Some coaches maintain that incomplete squats (those terminating above parallel) are both less effective and more likely to cause injury than a full squat (terminating with hips at or below knee level).

Jumping jack / star jump  

is a physical jumping exercise performed by jumping to a position with the legs spread wide and the hands touching overhead, sometimes in a clap, and then returning to a position with the feet together and the arms at the sides. The jumping jack name comes from the traditional toy of the same name, while "star jump" refers to the person's appearance with legs and arms spread.

More intensive versions of this jump include bending down (over) and touching the floor in between each jump.

A similar jump exercise is called half-jacks, which were created to prevent rotator cuff injuries, which have been linked to the repetitive movements of the exercise. They are just like regular jumping jacks, but the arms go halfway above the head instead of all the way above the head. The arms also hit the sides to help tighten the jump.

Beginners class usually start with a repetition of 10 times jumping jacks. Later on the repetition increases as you gradually progress through training.


can refer to any position of the human body where one leg is positioned forward with knee bent and foot flat on the ground while the other leg is positioned behind. It is used by athletes in cross-training for sports and by weight-trainers as a fitness exercise.

Lunges are a good exercise for strengthening, sculpting and building several muscles/muscle groups, including the quadriceps (or thighs), the gluteus maximus (or buttocks) as well as the hamstrings. A long lunge emphasizes the use of the gluteals whereas a short lunge emphasizes the quadriceps. The lunge is a basic movement that is fairly simple to do for beginner athletes.

A lunge can be performed using bodyweight alone. However, weight trainers may seek to increase the difficulty using either dumbbells or kettlebells held in each hand, or a barbell held atop the neck and shoulders. Grip strength may be an issue with the dumbbell lunge so practitioners may prefer the barbell lunge.

As a variation, plyometric lunges (also known as split squat jumps) can be performed by jumping explosively between lunge positions.

Technique Injuries

Collisions with the ground, objects, and other taekwondo practitioners are common, and unexpected dynamic forces on limbs and joints can cause injury. Taekwondo injuries can also occur in techniques if done improperly or from overuse of a particular body part. Taking a break from training or reducing the volume and the intensity of the training will allow the body to recover.


is an isometric core strength exercise that involves maintaining a difficult position for extended periods of time. The most common plank is the front plank which is held in a push-up position with the body's weight borne on forearms, elbows, and toes.

Many variations exist such as the side plank and the reverse plank. The plank is commonly practiced in pilates and yoga, and by those training for boxing and other sports.

The plank strengthens the abdominals, back, and shoulders. Muscles involved in the front plank include:

  • Primary muscles: erector spinae, rectus abdominis (abs), and transverse abdominus.
  • Secondary muscles: (synergists/segmental stabilizers): trapezius (traps), rhomboids, rotator cuff, the anterior, medial, and posterior deltoid muscles (delts), pectorals (pecs), serratus anterior, gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads), and gastrocnemius.

Muscles involved in the side plank include:

Primary: transversus abdominis muscle, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles (abductors), the adductor muscles of the hip, and

the external, and internal obliques. 

Secondary: gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads), and hamstrings.

burpee is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise. The basic movement is performed in four steps and known as a "four-count burpee":

  1. Begin in a standing position.
  2. Drop into a squat position with your hands on the ground. (count 1)
  3. Kick your feet back, while keeping your arms extended. (count 2)
  4. Immediately return your feet to the squat position. (count 3)
  5. Jump up from the squat position (count 4)


  • Box-jump burpee - The athlete jumps onto a box, rather than straight up and down.
  • Burpee push up (also known as a "bastardo") - The athlete performs one push-up after assuming the plank position.
  • Dumbbell burpee - The athlete holds a pair of dumbbells while performing the exercise.
  • Eight-count push up or Double burpee - The athlete performs two push-ups after assuming the plank position. This cancels the drive from landing after the jump and makes the next jump harder. Each part of the burpee might be repeated to make it even harder.
  • Jump-over burpee - The athlete jumps over an obstacle between burpees.
  • Jump up burpee - The athlete jumps up as high as they can in at the end of the movement and before beginning the next burpee.
  • Knee push-up burpee - The athlete bends their knees and rests them on the ground before performing the push up.
  • Long-jump burpee - The athlete jumps forward, not upward.
  • Muscle-up burpee - Combine a muscle-up (a variation of a pull-up) with the jump or do a muscle-up instead of the jump.
  • One-armed burpee - The athlete uses only one arm for the whole exercise including the pushup.
  • One leg burpee - The athlete stands on one leg, bends at the waist and puts hands on ground so they are aligned with shoulders. Next jump back with the standing leg to plank position. Jump forward with the one leg that was extended, and do a one-leg jump. Repeat on opposite side.
  • Parkour burpee - Following one burpee on the ground, the athlete jumps upon a table and performs the second burpee on the table, then jumps back to the initial position.
  • Pull-up burpee - Combine a pull-up with the jump or do a pull-up instead of the jump.
  • Side burpee - The athlete bends at waist and places hand shoulder-width apart to the side of right or left foot. Jump both legs out to side and land on the outer and inner sides of your feet. Jump back in, jump up, and repeat on opposite side.
  • Squat Thrust - Same as a four-count burpee except the fourth count is only standing up from the squat instead of jumping.
  • Tuck-jump burpee - The athlete pulls their knees to their chest (tucks) at the peak of the jump.

Other Variants

8 count body builder, a burpee with a jumping jack on the ground. The 8 counts are:

  1. Squat with your hands on the ground,
  2. Kick your feet back,
  3. Kick your feet out to form a Y shape,
  4. Bring your feet back together,
  5. Down into a push-up,
  6. Up part of the push-up,
  7. Bring your feet back under you,
  8. Jump in the air.

Military 8 count bodybuilder:

  1. Squat with hands on the ground,
  2. Kick back your feet,
  3. Down for push up,
  4. Up for Push up,
  5. Kick feet back in,
  6. Stand up,
  7. Motion one of a jumping jack,
  8. Motion two of a jumping jack.

Wall / incline / air burpee

The athlete kicks his feet up against a wall / up on a table / up in the air, instead of back. Usually, these variants are performed without a pushup.

Skipping Rope

The jumper keeps both feet slightly apart and jumps at the same time over the rope. Beginners usually master this technique first before moving onto more advanced techniques.

In contrast to running, jumping rope is unlikely to lead to knee damage since the impact of each jump or step is absorbed by the balls of both feet rather than the heels. This decreases the ground reaction forces through the patella-femoral joint greatly.

Skipping may be used for a cardiovascular workout, similar to jogging or bicycle riding. This aerobic exercise can achieve a "burn rate" of up to 700 calories per hour of vigorous activity, with about 0.1 calories consumed per jump. Ten minutes of jumping rope is roughly the equivalent of running an eight-minute mile. Jumping rope for 15–20 minutes is enough to burn off the calories from a candy bar.

Weighted jump ropes are available for such athletes to increase the difficulty and effectiveness of such exercise. Individuals or groups can participate in the exercise, and learning proper jump rope technique is relatively simple compared to many other athletic activities. The exercise is also appropriate for a wide range of ages and fitness levels.


is an abdominal strength training exercise commonly performed to strengthen the abdominal muscles. It is similar to a crunch (crunches target the rectus abdominus and also work the obliques), but sit-ups have a fuller range of motion and condition additional muscles. Sit-ups target the hip flexors, rectus abdominus and also work the iliopsoas, tensor fasciae latae, rectus femoris, sartorius, and, to a very small degree, the obliques.

It begins with lying with the back on the floor, typically with the arms across the chest or hands behind the head and the knees bent in an attempt to reduce stress on the back muscles and spine, and then elevating both the upper and lower vertebrae from the floor until everything superior to the buttocks is not touching the ground. Some argue that situps can be dangerous due to high compressive lumbar load and may be replaced with the crunch in exercise programs.

Strength exercises such as sit-ups and push-ups do not cause the spot reduction of fat (abdominal muscular hypertrophy). Gaining a "six pack" requires both abdominal muscle hypertrophy training and fat loss over the abdomen—which can only be done by losing fat from the body as a whole.

In contrast to crunches, sit-ups do involve the quadratus lumborum muscle. If this muscle gets too strong, it could lead to Lordosis.


is one of the most common abdominal exercises. It primarily works the rectus abdominis muscle and also works the obliques.


A crunch begins with lying face up on the floor with knees bent. The movement begins by curling the shoulders towards the pelvis. The hands can be behind or beside the neck or crossed over the chest. Injury can be caused by pushing against the head or neck with hands.


The difficulty of the crunch can be increased by lying on a declined bench or holding a weight under the chin, on the chest or behind the head. Crunch exercises may be performed on exercise balls. Increasing the distance will also increase the load on the abdominals due to leverage. The curl-up is taught by spine biomechanics professor Dr. Stuart McGill, and he considers it to be a safer alternative to the crunch, which differs from the sit-up. McGill has done extensive research on the effects of crunch exercises on the back, which can be especially harmful for those rehabilitating their backs from an injury.

Strength exercises such as sit-ups and crunches do not cause the spot reduction of fat. Achieving "six pack abs" requires both abdominal muscle hypertrophy training and fat loss over the abdomen—which can only be done by losing fat from the body as a whole.

Differences between a crunch and a situp

Unlike the sit-up, in a proper crunch, the lower back stays on the floor. This is said by scientific literature to eliminate any involvement by the hip flexors, and make the crunch an effective isolation exercise for the abdominals.


  • The reverse crunch is a crunch done with the upper back on the floor and lifting the hips up instead.
  • The twisting crunch is performed by lifting one shoulder at a time. More emphasis is placed on the obliques.
  • The Thai crunch is performed by hitting the stomach after full contraction. This variation is used by Muay Thai fighters to condition the core to take hits from punches or knees.
  • The cable crunch is performed while kneeling upright by curling the body to pull down on a cable machine. The hips are kept motionless.

push-up (or press-up) 

is a common calisthenics exercise performed in a prone position by raising and lowering the body using the arms. Push-ups exercise the pectoral muscles, triceps, and anterior deltoids, with ancillary benefits to the rest of the deltoids, serratus anterior, coracobrachialis and the midsection as a whole. Push-ups are a basic exercise used in civilian athletic training or physical education and commonly in military physical training. They are also a common form of punishment used in the military, school sport, or in some martial arts dojos. In the past this movement was called a floor dip.

Muscles Worked

While the push-up primarily targets the muscles of the chest, arms, and shoulders, support required from other muscles results in a wider range of muscles integrated into the exercise.


In the "full push-up", the back and legs are straight and off the floor. There are several variations besides the common push-up. These include bringing the thumbs and index fingers of both hands together (a "diamond pushup") as well as having the elbows pointed towards the knees. These variations are intended to put greater emphasis on the triceps or shoulder, rather than the chest muscles. When both hands are unbalanced or on uneven surfaces, this exercise works the body core. Raising the feet or hands onto elevated surfaces during the exercise emphasize the upper (minor) and lower (major) pectorals, respectively. Raising the hands with the aid of push-up bars or a dumbbell allows for greater ROM (range of motion) providing further stress for the muscles. In most push-up variations a person will be lifting about 65% of his or her body weight.

Planche Push-ups

An extremely difficult variation is to perform a push-up using only hands, without resting the feet on the floor, i.e. starting from and returning to the planche position. These are known as "planche push-ups". To do this variation, the body's center of gravity must be kept over the hands while performing the push-up by leaning forward while the legs are elevated in the air, which requires great strength and a high level of balance. The entire bodyweight is lifted in this variation.

Knuckle Push-ups

Another variation is to perform pushups on the knuckles of the fist, rather than with palms of the hands on the floor. This method is also commonly used in martial arts, such as Karate and Tae Kwon Do, and may be used in boxing training while wearing boxing gloves. The intent, in addition to building strength and conditioning, is to toughen the knuckles, wrist, and forearm in the punching position. This variation also reduces the amount of strain in the wrist, compared to the typical "palms on floor" approach, and so it is sometimes used by those with wrist injuries. Such practitioners will usually perform their knuckle pushups on a padded floor or a rolled-up towel, unlike martial artists, who may do bare-knuckle pushups on hard floors.

Maltese Push-ups

"Maltese push-ups" are a gymnastic variation of the push-up, in which the hands are positioned closer to the hips (as opposed to the pectorals), but with an extremely great distance between them.

Guillotine Push-Ups

The guillotine push-up is a form of push-up exercise done from an elevated position (either hands on elevated platforms or traditionally medicine balls) where in the practitioner lowers his chest, head, and neck (thus the name) past the plane of the hands. The goal is to stretch the shoulders and put extra emphasis on the muscles there.

One arm versions

Many of the push-up variations can be done using one arm instead of two. This will further increase the resistance put upon the trainee.

Other versions

There are some less difficult versions, which reduce the effort by supporting some of the body weight in some way. One can move on to the standard push-up after progress is made.

"Wall" push-ups are performed by standing close to a wall and pushing away from the wall with the arms; one can increase the difficulty by moving one's feet farther from the wall.

"Table" or "chair" push-ups are performed by pushing away from a table, chair, or other object. The lower the object, the more difficult the push-up. One should be sure that the object is securely stationary before attempting to push up from it.

"Modified" or "knee" push-ups are performed by supporting the lower body on the knees instead of the toes, which reduces the difficulty. This is useful for warm ups/downs, pyramids/drop sets, endurance training and rehab. It can also be used to train in a more explosive plyometric manner (like clapping pushups) when one can't perform them with the feet. It can also be used with the 1-arm variations as a transition.

"Three phase" push-ups involve simply breaking a standard push up into three components and doing each one slowly and deliberately. Participants usually start face down on the floor with hands outstretched either perpendicular or parallel to the body. The first phase involves the arms being brought palms down on a 90 degree angle at the elbows. The second phase involves the body being pushed into the up position. The third phase is returning to the starting position. This technique is commonly used after a large block of regular push ups, as it poses less stress and requires less effort.

"Diamond" or "Triceps" push-ups are done by placing both palms on the ground and touching together both thumbs and pointer fingers. This technique requires stronger triceps muscles than regular push-ups due to the fact that, at the bottom of the stroke, the forearm is nearly parallel to the ground and the elbow is almost completely flexed, resulting in much higher mechanical load on the triceps.

"Hollow-Body" push-ups are performed in the position gymnasts refer call the "hollow body". In the plank version of the hollow body, the shoulders are protracted into a pronounced curve in the upper back while the abdominal muscles are tightened and the legs are locked and squeezed together. This variation requires full-body tension to execute and results in greater integration of the hips, shoulders, and core.


Two platforms are placed beside the trainee, one on either side. The exercise begins with the hands on either platform supporting the body, then the subject drops to the ground and explosively rebounds with a push-up, extending the torso and arms completely off the ground and returning the hands to the platforms.

Another is simply an explosive push-up where a person attempts to push quickly and with enough force to raise his or her hands several centimeters off the ground, with the body completely suspended on the feet for a moment, a variation of the drop push. This is necessary for performing 'clap push ups' - i.e. clapping the hands while in the air.

With push-ups, many possibilities for customization and increased intensity are possible. Some examples are: One hand can be set on a higher platform than the other or be farther away from the other to give more weight to the opposite arm/side of the body and also exercise many diverse muscles. One can perform push-ups by using only the tips of the fingers and thumb. For increased difficulty, push-ups can be performed on one arm or using weights.

Record Breakers and attempts

The first record for push-ups was documented by Guinness World Records: 6,006 non-stop push-ups by Charles Linster in 1965, October 5.

The record for the most push-ups non-stop was 10,507, set by Minoru Yoshida of Japan in October 1980. Minoru Yoshida's World Record was the last of its category for non-stop push-ups to be published by Guinness World Records. A new category, "Most Push-ups in 24 Hours," has since been introduced.

The current world record for most push-ups in 24 hours is by Charles Servizio (USA) who achieved 46,001 push-ups in just 21 hours, 6 minutes on 1993, April 24 to 25.

The world record for most two-handed backhand push-ups in one hour is 1,940 by Aman Sharma of the UK, set in 2007.

Doug Pruden (Canada) performed 1,025 one-arm push-ups on the back of the hand on 8 November 2008.

The Guinness World Record holder for backhanded push-ups, American John Morrow, completed 123 in one minute in 2006.

Muscles Worked Section

Abdominals - The rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis contract continually while performing push-ups to hold the body off the floor and keep the legs and torso aligned. The rectus abdominis spans the front of the abdomen and is the most prominent of the abdominal muscles. The transversus abdominis lies deep within the abdomen, wrapping around the entire abdominal area. Both muscles compress the abdomen, and the rectus abdominis also flexes the spine forward, although it does not execute this function when performing push-ups.

Deltoid - The anterior portion of the deltoid muscle is one of the major shoulder-joint horizontal adductors, moving your upper arms toward your chest during the upward phase of a push-up. It also helps control the speed of movement during the downward phase. The deltoid attaches to parts of the clavicle and scapula, just above the shoulder joint, on one end, and to the outside of the humerus bone on the other. Along with horizontal adduction, the anterior deltoid assists with flexion and internal rotation of the humerus within the shoulder socket.

Pectoralis major - The pectoralis major is another main horizontal adductor of the shoulder joint, so it performs the same functions as the anterior deltoid during a push-up. It also contributes to adduction, extension, flexion and internal rotation ranges of motion. The muscle is divided into clavicular and sternal parts. Both parts attach just outside the head of the humerus and run toward the center of your body. The parts then separate, with the clavicular part attaching to the inner two-thirds of the clavicle, and the sternal part to the front of the sternum and the first six ribs.

Triceps brachii - While the anterior deltoids and pectoralis major muscles work to horizontally adduct the upper arms during the upward phase of a push-up, the triceps brachii muscles, or triceps for short, are also hard at work extending the elbow joints so you can fully extend your arms. The triceps also control the speed of elbow-joint flexion during the downward phase of the exercise. The closer together you place your hands during a push-up, the harder the triceps work. The muscle is divided into three heads—the lateral head, long head and medial head. The lateral and medial heads attach to the back of the humerus bone and the long head attaches just behind the shoulder socket on one end; all three heads combine and attach to the back of your elbow on the other.

Suomeksi Taekwondosta kerättyä tekstiä

Liikuntavammoja ehkäistäessä on tärkeää kiinnittää huomiota:

  • monipuoliseen alkulämmittelyyn
  • palautumiseen treenin jälkeen
  • monipuoliseen ravitsemukseen, riittävään nesteytykseen ja lepoon
  • Taekwondo lajin vaatimusten ja omien taitojen yhteensovittamiseen
  • kontaktilajien ja kilpailutilanteiden suurempaan tapaturmariskiin
  • suojavälineiden ja sopivien jalkineiden käyttöön
  • liikuntapaikan mahdollisiin tapaturmavaaroihin (esimerkiksi alustat)
  • reiluun peliin ja sääntöjen noudattamiseen
  • vanhojen vammojen hoitoon
  • tarvittavaan lepoon sairauden jälkeen


  • Valmistaa elimistö tulevaa rasitusta varten.
  • Käynnistää hengitys- ja verenkiertoelimistö sekä lämmittää kudokset.
  • Herätellä hermolihasjärjestelmä (aivot, liikehermot, asentotunto).
  • Aktivoida tulevassa harjoituksessa tarvittavat lihakset ja tukilihakset.
  • Lisätä keskittymistä ja aktivoida henkinen vireystila.
  • Liikuntavammojen riskien vähentäminen

Hyvässä alkulämmittelyssä on monipuolisia ja vaihtelevia harjoitteita, jotka aloitetaan maltillisesti ja lisätään tehoa pikkuhiljaa. Kesto ajallisesti noin 15minuuttia.

  • juoksutekniikkaharjoitteita
  • ketteryysharjoitteita
  • tasapainoharjoitteita
  • hyppelyjä
  • lihaskuntoharjoitteita.


  • Rauhoittaa ja palauttaa elimistöä.
  • Valmistaa elimistöä seuraavaan harjoitukseen tai kilpailuun.
  • Palauttaa lihasten lepopituus (maltillisten venyttelyiden avulla).
  • Liikkuvuuden parantaminen
  • Liikuntavammojen riskien vähentäminen

Hyvässä loppujäähdyttelyssä on tärkeää pitää aktiivisina ja lämpiminä lihasryhmät, jotka ovat edeltäneessä harjoituksessa kuormittuneet. Näin kuormittuneiden lihasten verenkierto pysyy käynnissä. Laskevalla intensiteetillä. Kesto noin 15min.